In late summer and early autumn, bursts of autumn wind sent away the heat of summer and brought some freshness and comfort.
The reminder of novel coronavirus pneumonia, school emergency public health events, hand foot mouth disease, encephalitis B, foodborne diseases and epidemic hemorrhagic fever is a warning to all of the schools.
The recent national epidemic situation of New Coronavirus pneumonia has remained stable throughout the whole country.
There are reports of local cases in some areas.
The epidemic situation in Shaanxi is still mainly imported from abroad, and the risk of overseas input persists.
Novel coronavirus pneumonia is a high risk season for respiratory infectious diseases in autumn and winter.
To prevent the outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia in autumn and winter and to protect health, the following suggestions are put forward for the masses.
Health tips: (1) personnel entering from abroad (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) and returning to Shaanxi from medium and high risk areas shall cooperate with relevant departments in isolation and health management（ 2) Active vaccination, after vaccination, most people can obtain immunity, so as to reduce the risk of morbidity, severe illness and death（ 3) Do a good job in personal protection, and develop good health habits such as frequent hand washing, frequent ventilation, using public chopsticks, wearing masks, keeping distance, covering mouth and nose, and frequent cleaning（ 4) Workers in key places such as farmers’ markets, food processing plants, meat joint factories and airport freight transportation should pay attention to ventilation, disinfection and health monitoring, and strictly prevent working with diseases（ 5) Schools and kindergartens should do a good job in cleaning and preventive disinfection of key places before school starts, improve hand washing facilities, do a good job in health monitoring of students and teaching staff, and implement the morning and afternoon inspection and absence tracking management system after school starts（ 6) Strengthen personal health management.
Pay close attention to the health status of your family and yourself.
If you have discomfort symptoms such as fever, fatigue and dry cough, go to the nearest medical institution as soon as possible (if you have fever, you need to go to the fever clinic).
2、 The school public health emergency in September coincided with the opening of major primary and secondary schools one after another.
After enrollment, due to the intervention of new infection sources and the aggregation of susceptible people, it will increase the transmission risk of various infectious diseases.
We should be vigilant against the occurrence of school aggregation cases.
Health tips: novel coronavirus pneumonia (1) to strengthen the health education activities of students’ knowledge about prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia, common respiratory tract and intestinal infectious diseases, and guide students to develop good diet, hygiene and living habits, and enhance students’ awareness of disease prevention.
For vaccine preventable infectious diseases such as influenza, mumps, chickenpox, etc., the vaccine shall be vaccinated in time and in the whole process according to relevant vaccination requirements（ 2) The school shall strictly implement various prevention and control measures such as morning and afternoon inspection system, absence registration system due to illness, return to school system after illness, epidemic situation report and disinfection system, maintain ventilation in classrooms and dormitories, pay close attention to students’ health status, achieve early detection, early report and early treatment, and focus on preventing concentrated cases and outbreaks of respiratory and intestinal infectious diseases（ 3) Schools should pay attention to the safety of drinking water, conduct sanitary inspection on water supply and drinking water facilities before school starts, sample and submit the water quality for inspection, and drink only after passing the inspection of formal institutions（ 4) The school should pay attention to food safety, and conduct dragnet investigation on key parts such as canteen before school, so as to avoid potential safety hazards.
3、 Hand foot mouth disease hand foot mouth disease is an infectious disease caused by enterovirus.
The main pathogens are enterovirus 71 and Coxsackie virus a16, which mostly occur in infants under 5 years old.
It is mainly transmitted through fecal oral route, followed by respiratory droplets.
In addition, it can also be infected by contacting patients or hands, daily utensils and clothes contaminated by patients’ excreta, secretions and herpes.
Health tips: (1) vaccination with EV71 vaccine can prevent hand, foot and mouth disease caused by EV71 virus and reduce the incidence of severe and dead cases（ 2) Pay attention to personal hygiene, especially wash hands before touching mouth and nose, before meals and after defecation, and after contacting respiratory secretions; Cover your mouth and nose with paper towels when sneezing and coughing; Do not share towels or other personal belongings with others; Children should also be instructed to develop correct hand washing habits and master the “seven step washing technique”（ 3) Open windows and ventilate the room frequently, keep the indoor air fresh, change, wash and dry clothes and bedding frequently; Toys or other articles should be cleaned and disinfected regularly（ 4) Try not to take children to crowded public places, especially avoid contact with children with fever and rash（ 5) In case of fever, rash or oral ulcer, go to the hospital in time.
Delaying treatment or misdiagnosis is is easy to make children develop into severe cases and even lead to death.
4、 Epidemic encephalitis B epidemic encephalitis B (encephalitis B for short) is an acute infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by encephalitis B virus.
Pigs are the main source of infection of the disease, which is often transmitted through mosquito bites.
July September is the main epidemic season of JE in our province.
With the opening of colleges and technical secondary schools in September, there will be new students from non epidemic areas, and the risk of JE will increase.
Health tips: (1) JE vaccine is the main measure to prevent and control JE.
At present, there are two kinds of JE vaccines used at home and abroad: inactivated vaccine and attenuated live vaccine, which can be used for children and adults over 8 months old.
It is recommended that freshmen from non epidemic areas such as Xinjiang, Tibet and Qinghai who come to Shaanxi and migrant workers or tourists from non epidemic areas should be vaccinated with one dose of live attenuated encephalitis B vaccine or two doses of inactivated encephalitis B vaccine under the principle of “informed, self funded and voluntary”（ 2) Screen doors, screens and mosquito nets can be used to prevent mosquitoes in the home environment, and household sanitary insecticides such as mosquito incense and aerosol can be used to drive and kill mosquitoes indoors（ 3) Pay attention to the hygiene of families and livestock (poultry) houses, remove all kinds of water bodies that may accumulate mosquito larvae, and timely clean the accumulated water on the tray of flower pots（ 4) When going out for activities, avoid the dark and hidden environment preferred by mosquitoes, wear light colored loose clothes and trousers, or apply mosquito repellent on exposed parts to prevent mosquito bites（ 5) In case of suspected symptoms of encephalitis B, go to the hospital as soon as possible to avoid delaying the condition.
5、 Foodborne diseases peak in summer and autumn, mainly caused by Shigella, Salmonella, Escherichia coli and other microorganisms.
Children and young adults are the high incidence groups.
Schools, kindergartens, construction sites and other collective dining places are easy to cause outbreaks.
Health tips: (1) develop good hygiene habits.
Wash hands before and after meals and before processing food.
At the same time, pay attention to the hygiene of kitchen and diet, and separate raw and cooked food to prevent cross pollution（ 2) Canteens and families should strictly control the quality of food purchased, and must not buy rotten raw materials for cheap.
Food practitioners shall strictly implement the hygiene system, pay attention to personal hygiene and ensure food safety（ 3) When dining out, you should choose a regular restaurant or restaurant with good sanitary conditions.
Do not pick, pick, buy, process and eat food of unknown origin and unknown wild fungi and wild fruits; Try not to eat incompletely cooked food, drink unclean raw water, or eat rotten vegetables and fruits; Do not eat raw green beans, sprouted potatoes, moldy sugarcane, etc; Eat less or no leftovers.
If it needs to be used, it needs to be heated thoroughly（ 4) Those with food poisoning symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea after eating should go to the hospital in time.
6、 Epidemic hemorrhagic fever hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is caused by Hantavirus carried by rats and transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through excreta and secretions containing the virus such as saliva and urine or direct bite.
Colleges and universities in the surrounding districts and counties of Xi’an are concentrated, which is a high incidence area of epidemic hemorrhagic fever.
With the opening of colleges and technical secondary schools in September, there will be new students from all over the country, and the risk of hemorrhagic fever will increase..